Over the last decade, the debate on the role of managers has been an issue of paramount importance. It has come to be widely acknowledged that management by planning and control is not enough in the information and knowledge era (e.g. Drucker, 1999, Mintzberg, 2004). In this the 21st century, organisations are in need of inspiring leaders - managers who are able to take provocative decisions and lead radical change. This requires managers who can build and create. These competencies cannot be developed by merely “following” a management development (MD) programme as consumers: digesting content and exercises prepared by others, and then translating these into one’s own daily practice, with all the transfer problems we are only too familiar with. If managers are to be creators and leaders, they need to be in charge of their own learning, co-creators of their own development. The design of the learning process should be consistent with the objectives of learning and with what is required in day-to-day work.